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《中国的核安全》白皮书(3)(中英对照)

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II. Building a Policy and Legal Framework on Nuclear Safety

二、构建核安全政策法规体系
China is a leading country in the application of nuclear energy and technologies. Nuclear safety is critical to national security, and the corresponding policies and laws are the cornerstone of nuclear safety. To achieve optimal management of nuclear safety, China employs the highest standards and strictest requirements in shaping the policy and legal framework, implementing a national strategy, making medium- and long-term plans, and improving laws and regulations concerning nuclear safety.
中国是核能与核技术利用大国,核安全是国家安全的重要内容,政策法规是核安全的基本保障。中国从高从严构建核安全政策法规体系,实施国家核安全战略,制定核安全中长期规划,完善核安全法规标准,确保核安全管理要求从高不从低、管理尺度从严不从宽。
Formulating a national nuclear safety strategy. China treats the development and utilization of nuclear energy as an important strategy to boost economic and social development and build a beautiful China, including it in the country's medium- and long-term plans for national economic and social development. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and particularly since reform and opening up, China has committed itself to prioritizing nuclear safety and maintaining a balance between safety and development throughout the stages of initial, early, active, and safe and efficient development.
制定实施国家核安全战略。中国将开发利用核能作为促进经济社会快速发展、建设美丽中国的重要战略,纳入国民经济和社会发展中长期规划。中华人民共和国成立以来特别是改革开放以来,中国核能利用从起步发展、适度发展到积极发展、安全高效发展,始终坚持安全第一,实现发展和安全两个目标相互促进、有机融合。
Making medium- and long-term development plans for nuclear safety. China makes medium- and long-term development plans for nuclear safety every five years under the framework of the Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. It has released the 12th Five-year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and Vision for 2020, and the 13th Five-year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and Vision for 2025, analyzing the situation, clarifying guidelines and principles, and defining goal indicators, key tasks and projects, and supportive measures for nuclear safety. These plans have helped to coordinate all efforts to ensure nuclear safety and effectively improved our nuclear safety and regulatory capacity.
制定发布核安全中长期发展规划。在国民经济和社会发展五年规划的总体框架下,中国每五年制定实施核安全中长期规划,先后发布了《核安全与放射性污染防治“十二五”规划及2020年远景目标》《核安全与放射性污染防治“十三五”规划及2025年远景目标》,分析了核安全现状与形势,阐明了核安全指导思想和基本原则,明确了核安全目标指标、重点任务、重点工程、保障措施,统筹核安全各项工作,有效提升核安全水平和监管能力。
Establishing a sound system of laws and industrial standards. China continues to strengthen the formulation of the laws on nuclear safety, under which administrative regulations and departmental rules dovetail with the law, the provisions of laws and regulations and technical standards complement each other, and central and local regulations combine to the best effect. This makes the full regulation of nuclear energy development and utilization possible, laying the foundations for the rule of law in this sector. In June 2003, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution was promulgated; in September 2017, the Nuclear Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued. By June 2019, China had enacted nine administrative regulations such as the Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Civil Nuclear Facilities, the Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment, the Regulations on Nuclear Material Control, and the Regulations on Emergency Management of Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants. It had issued over 30 sets of departmental rules and 100 sets of safety guidelines, and formulated over 1,000 national and industry standards related to nuclear safety. Over 200 local regulations have been formulated by China's 31 provinces and equivalent administrative units. To update legal standards and keep abreast with the most advanced international developments, we have reviewed and summarized domestic and overseas experience in nuclear safety, and closely tracked the latest safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency and countries with advanced nuclear technologies.
建立系统完备的法规标准体系。中国持续强化核安全法规标准建设,形成了法律、行政法规、部门规章相衔接,法规要求和技术标准相补充,中央和地方相结合的法规标准体系,实现了核能开发利用安全监管全覆盖,为依法治核夯实了基础。2003年6月,《中华人民共和国放射性污染防治法》颁布;2017年9月,《中华人民共和国核安全法》颁布。截至2019年6月,颁布《民用核设施安全监督管理条例》《民用核安全设备监督管理条例》《核材料管制条例》《核电厂核事故应急管理条例》等行政法规9部,发布部门规章30余项和安全导则100余项,制定核安全相关国家标准和行业标准1000余项,31个省、自治区、直辖市制定地方性法规文件200余个。及时总结国内外核安全实践经验,密切跟踪国际原子能机构和核电发达国家最新安全要求,不断更新法规标准,始终保持国际先进水平。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
formulation [。fɔ:mju'leiʃən]

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n. 形成,简洁陈述,公式化

 
effectively [i'fektivli]

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adv. 事实上,有效地

 
security [si'kju:riti]

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n. 安全,防护措施,保证,抵押,债券,证券

 
social ['səuʃəl]

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adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

 
prevention [pri'venʃən]

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n. 阻止,妨碍,预防

 
update [ʌp'deit]

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v. 更新,补充最新资料
n. 更新

 
capacity [kə'pæsiti]

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n. 能力,容量,容积; 资格,职位
adj.

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legal ['li:gəl]

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adj. 法律的,合法的,法定的

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combine [kəm'bain]

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v. 结合,联合,使结合
n. 集团,联合企业

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administration [əd.mini'streiʃən]

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n。 行政,管理,行政部门

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